最新研究 News in Research


Paralytic rabies in a goat
拉丁美洲的牛經常出現狂犬病,但在山羊中並不常見。 關於影響山羊的狂犬病的臨床報告很少,研究顯示山羊也會遭狂犬病感染。


Lack of serological and molecular evidence of arbovirus infections in bats from Brazil
利用巢式PCR和血細胞凝集抑制試驗分析了巴西東北部和南部的103隻蝙蝠的血清、肝臟、肺和腸道,已瞭解蝙蝠是否在吃了病媒蚊後成為傳播者。本研究中測試的所有樣品均為蟲媒病毒陰性,表明捕獲的蝙蝠中沒有活躍或過去的感染。這些數據表明,本文檢查的蝙蝠可能不構成研究區域中這些病毒的宿主。需要進一步的研究來闡明蝙蝠作為這些病毒性人畜共患病的宿主和感染源的作用。

蝙蝠是許多人畜共患病毒的宿主,它們攜帶的病毒識別很重要。本研究旨在利用高通量篩選鑑定台灣食蟲蝙蝠洞穴糞便中的病毒,以獲得有關東亞蝙蝠衍生病原病毒的更多訊息。從台灣的兩個洞穴收集排遺,進行基於Multiplex PCR的次世代測序以進行病毒鑑定。經過逆轉錄PCR檢測並確認腦心肌炎病毒(EMCV)序列。 EMCV被認為是囓齒動物病毒,此外進一步利用細胞色素氧化酶I(COI)條形碼進行動物物種鑑定以鑑定病毒來源。最後,還確定了從日本和韓國洞穴獲得的排遺中EMCV存在的分佈和驗證。我們得出的結論是,東部的翅東亞摺翅蝠(Miniopterus fuliginosus)可能是東亞EMCV的天然宿主之一。
在2006 - 2017年期間,所有蝙蝠物種的RABV陽性率為6.0%(176 / 2,928)。在大棕蝠(Eptesicus fuscus)中最高。年度的增加趨勢僅對大棕蝠具有顯著性(P = 0.02),並且與地理群集有關。RABV陽性結果與非人類、異常行為、異常隱藏、受傷、咬傷、在水體中發現,在戶外發現並被狗捕獲顯著相關。

被動監測RABV提供公共衛生當局能夠進行更準確的風險評估。蝙蝠物種RABV陽性時間和空間趨勢的差異表明收集分類學數據的重要性,儘管某些Myotis物種的形態學鑑定可能不可靠。應保持目前RABV暴露的公共衛生規範,因為如果沒有診斷測試,蝙蝠中的RABV感染絕不能排除。

Assessment of a Rabies Virus Rapid Diagnostic Test for the Detection of Australian Bat Lyssavirus

澳洲蝙蝠麗沙病毒病毒(ABLV)與典型狂犬病毒密切相關,且與澳洲的三人死亡和兩匹馬死亡有關。人類ABLV感染引起腦脊髓炎,導致致命疾病,但沒有有效的治療方法。病毒在狐(Pteropid spp。)和至少一種食蟲蝙蝠(Saccolaimus flaviventris)中有被發現。實驗室測試是被人咬傷、抓傷和其他直接接觸蝙蝠的,及對生病或死亡蝙蝠的蝙蝠大腦上進行的。醫學乾預和暴露後預防的水平在很大程度上取決於抗原/病毒的實驗室測試,作為接觸蝙蝠的可證明的感染狀態。本研究評估了橫向流動試驗Anigen Rabies Ag檢測快速試驗(RDT)在ABLV感染的蝙蝠腦組織的翼足類變體中的比較診斷性能。 RDT證實與43個臨床樣品的參考標準熒光抗體測試100%一致,表明可能用於快速診斷ABLV感染的翼足類變體。加權Kappa值為0.95證實了兩個測試之間的高度一致性。


Additional Progress in the Development and Application of a Direct, Rapid Immunohistochemical Test for Rabies Diagnosis.
在實驗室中通常用FAT進行狂犬病的診斷,新的開發技術是利用直接快速免疫測試(DRIT)。將DRIT與FAT進行比較,使用超過800個哺乳動物大腦樣本,代表超過25個分類群,其中包括超過250個來自歐洲和北美的動物狂犬病病例。靈敏度測定為98%(96-100%,95%CI),特異性計算為95%(92-96%,95%CI)。結果顯示,DRIT似乎是FAT用於狂犬病病毒診斷的合適替代方案。
Veterinary Sciences [20 Jun 2018, 5(2)]


台灣蝙蝠麗沙病毒研究發表
台灣蝙蝠麗沙病毒
台灣蝙蝠麗沙病毒發的並確認為新型的麗沙病毒,此病毒命名為TWBLV。
發表於Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 24, No. 4, April 2018

Exploring animal rabies endemicity to inform control programmes in Punjab, India

VJ Brookes, GS Gill, CK Singh, BS Sandhu, NK Dhand… - Zoonoses and Public Health
... 1 INTRODUCTION. There are 12 reported species of RNA viruses in the Lyssavirus genus
(King, 2011), each with zoonotic potential. Of these, canine rabies (caused by classical rabies
virus [CRV], or genotype 1) has the highest impact on human health. ...

Insights and efforts to control rabies in Zambia: Evaluation of determinants and barriers to dog vaccination in Nyimba district

CP Mulipukwa, B Mudenda, AR Mbewe - PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2017
... Human rabies is mostly due to dog-transmitted rabies virus (RABV) [5] which is an RNA virus
of the Rhabdoviridae family genus Lyssavirus [6]. Following invasion of the central nervous system,
rabies infection progresses rapidly [7] and death due to respiratory failure or cardiac ...


Terrestrial animal-derived rabies virus in a juvenile Indian flying fox in Sri Lanka

T Matsumoto, S Nanayakkara, D Perera, S Ushijima… - Japanese Journal of Infectious …
... Sri Lanka. However, recently a novel lyssavirus named Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus, closely related
to RABV has been reported in a P. medius from Sri Lanka (3). In the ... 3. Gunawardena PS, Marston
DA, Ellis RJ, et al. Lyssavirus in Indian Flying Foxes, Sri Lanka. ...


Comparative pathogenesis of rabies in bats and carnivores, and implications for spillover to humans

L Begeman, C GeurtsvanKessel, S Finke, CM Freuling… - The Lancet Infectious …, 2017
... Rabies is caused by lyssavirus infection. There are 16 recognised or putative
lyssavirus species, seven of which are known to cause rabies in human
beings.7–9 Although these viruses differ genetically, they all infect the CNS. ...


European bat lyssavirus type 2 in Finland: Surveillance, evolutionary analysis, and prevention with vaccination

T Nokireki - Evira Research Reports, 2017
European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) was first isolated in Finland from a Daubenton's bat 
(Myotis daubentonii) in 2009. Rabies in bats was already suspected in 1985, when a Swiss 
biologist died in Finland of lyssavirus infection, later identified as EBLV-2 infection. However, 


Mercury in fur of Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) in Southern Sweden and Comparison to Ecotoxicological Thresholds

S Åkerblom, J de Jong - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and …, 2017
… Sweden. Fur samples were collected in conjunction with annual surveil- lance for
the prevalence of bat lyssavirus type 2. Bats were classified as either juvenile or
adult based on examination of finger bones (Anthony 1988) …


Development and validation of an immunoperoxidase antigen detection test for improved diagnosis of rabies in Indonesia.

I Rahmadane, AF Certoma, GR Peck, Y Fitria, J Payne… - PLoS neglected tropical …, 2017
… Introduction Rabies is a lethal zoonotic viral disease caused by a member of the Lyssavirus genus
within the Rhabdoviridae family. Dog bites are responsible for transmission of rabies to humans
in 99% of all mortalities and for 90% of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) globally …

Longitudinal survey of two serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) maternity colonies exposed to EBLV-1 (European Bat Lyssavirus type 1): Assessment of survival and …

E Robardet, C Borel, M Moinet, D Jouan… - PLOS Neglected Tropical …, 2017
Abstract This study describes two longitudinal serological surveys of European Bat 
Lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) antibodies in serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) maternity 
colonies located in the North-East of France. This species is currently considered as the 

The effect of selected molecules influencing the detrimental host immune response on a course of rabies virus infection in a murine model

M Smreczak, A Marzec, A Orłowska, P Trębas… - Vaccine, 2017
Rabies is invariably fatal, when post-exposure prophylaxis is administered after the onset
of clinical symptoms. In many countries, rabies awareness is very low.

Deadly human link ends with horse vaccine for Hendra virus

November 1, 2012 

Read more: http://www.smh.com.au/national/health/deadly-human-link-ends-with-horse-vaccine-for-hendra-virus-20121031-28kgs.html#ixzz2AtXOijrT

AN international team of researchers has developed the first horse vaccine for the deadly Hendra virus, using the ovary cells of a Chinese hamster.

Read more: http://www.smh.com.au/national/health/deadly-human-link-ends-with-horse-vaccine-for-hendra-virus-20121031-28kgs.html#ixzz2AtXb1Vta


Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited

van V. Kuzmin1*, Brooke Bozick2, Sarah A. Guagliardo2, Rebekah Kunkel2, Joshua R. Shak2, Suxiang Tong1 and Charles E. Rupprecht1

1Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution Program, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA

Abstract

The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels.

Keywords: bats; Chiroptera; emerging infectious disease; rabies; lyssavirus; coronavirus; filovirus; henipavirus; prevention; control 

Received: 5 April 2011; Revised: 31 May 2011; Accepted: 31 May 2011; Published: 20 June 2011

Citation: Emergency Health Threats Journal 20114: 7159 - DOI: 10.3402/ehtj.v4i0.7159


Fig. Bat-associated and presumable bat-associated EIDs. Abbreviations: RABV,=rabies virus; EBLV-1,2 = European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2; WCBV = West Caucasian bat virus; ARAV = Aravan virus; KHUV = Khujand virus; IRKV = Irkut virus; LBV = Lagos bat virus; SHIBV = Shimoni bat virus; DUVV = Duvenhage virus; MARV = Marburg virus; EBOV = Ebola virus; Filovirus = unclassified filovirus detected in bats in Europe; HeV = Hendra virus; NiV = Nipah virus; Henipavirus = unclassified henipavirus; SARS-CoV = SARS coronavirus. 

文獻連結: http://www.eht-journal.net/index.php/ehtj/article/view/7159/8775 

Human antibody fends off Hendra virus

Thursday, 20 October 2011


http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2011/10/20/3344094.htm


AFP

A grey headed flying fox or fruit bat looking directly at camera from its spot in a tree

The Hendra virus is thought to be spread to horses via half-chewed fruit, or water and food contaminated by bats' droppings (iStockphoto: Craig Dingle)

Related Stories

A human antibody has been shown to protect lab monkeys from a deadly bat-borne virus that has killed several people and dozens of horses since it was discovered in Australia in 1994, say US scientists.

The latest outbreak of Hendra virus has killed 20 horses in New South Wales and Queensland since June, but no humans. However four of the seven people ever to have contracted the disease have died.

The research, described in the journal Science Translational Medicine , was done at a highly protected lab in Montana, where 14 African green monkeys were injected with Hendra virus.

Twelve of the monkeys were then treated with a human antibody called m102.4, and they all survived while the untreated pair died.

Earlier experiments on smaller animals have also shown efficacy from the antibody against Hendra virus.

After the US study on monkeys concluded in 2010, the antibody was injected in a woman and her 12-year-old daughter in Australia last year after the girl's horse died last year from a Hendra infection.

While the two survived with no side effects from the treatment, scientists say more research needs to be done before the antibody can be used as a widespread remedy.

"This is a very promising therapy, especially when you consider that it was still strong three days later," says lead author Thomas Geisbert of the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston.

"What's also interesting is that this antibody has strong activity against Nipah virus as well, which is extremely similar to Hendra."

Bats, horses and humans

The Hendra virus, which kills about 60 per cent of those it infects, is thought to be spread to horses via half-chewed fruit, or water and food contaminated by bats' droppings.

Horses can then spread it to humans, though no person-to-person transmission cases have been documented.

However, Nipah virus, which emerged in 1998 in Malaysia and has been detected in Bangladesh and India, appears to infect humans more easily than Hendra and can be transmitted from person to person.

Nipah virus has infected 475 humans and killed 251 of them, according to the World Health Organization's latest data in 2008.

There is no licensed treatment or vaccine for either the Hendra or Nipah viruses.

The fruit bats that carry the disease are found mainly in Australia but have also been tracked to parts of Africa, India, Pakistan, and the Philippines.

The research was done in collaboration with Rocky Mountain Laboratories, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the National Institutes of Health, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, the National Cancer Institute, and the Boston University School of Medicine.

Tags: vaccines-and-immunitymammalshendra-virus-infection

http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2011/10/20/3344094.htm


施打人類抗體 亨德拉病毒有解

法新社法新社 – 2011年10月20日 下午11:20

      (法新社華盛頓19日電) 美國科學家今天表示,研究顯示,1種人類抗體能使實驗室裡的猴子免於感染源自蝙蝠的致命性病毒亨德拉。
        亨德拉病毒自1994年於澳洲現蹤後,已導致數人與數十匹馬死亡。
        
        最近再度爆發的亨德拉病毒自6月以來,已造成澳洲新南威爾斯(New South Wales)與昆士蘭(Queensland)有20匹馬死亡,不過無人喪命。
        然而曾感染亨德拉病毒的7個人中,已有4人身亡。
       根據「科學轉譯醫學」期刊(ScienceTranslational Medicine),這項研究在蒙大拿(Montana)高度防備的實驗室中進行,研究人員將亨德拉病毒
       注射到14隻非洲綠猴身上。其中12隻綠猴接著接受人類抗體m102.4治療,並全數存活,而未接受m102.4治療的剩下2隻綠猴,則難逃一死。

       先前也有實驗發現,m102.4能幫助小動物對抗亨德拉病毒。

這項針對猴子進行的美國研究於2010年做出結論後,1名接觸到亨德拉病毒的澳洲婦女與其12歲女兒,為尋求緊急防護,接受了m102.4注射。

這對母女接受m102.4治療後,都保住一命,且未出現副作用。科學家表示,在m102.4抗體成為廣泛療法前,還需進行更多研究。(譯者:中央社蔡佳伶)


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