最新研究 News in Research

Deadly human link ends with horse vaccine for Hendra virus

November 1, 2012 

Read more: http://www.smh.com.au/national/health/deadly-human-link-ends-with-horse-vaccine-for-hendra-virus-20121031-28kgs.html#ixzz2AtXOijrT

AN international team of researchers has developed the first horse vaccine for the deadly Hendra virus, using the ovary cells of a Chinese hamster.

Read more: http://www.smh.com.au/national/health/deadly-human-link-ends-with-horse-vaccine-for-hendra-virus-20121031-28kgs.html#ixzz2AtXb1Vta


Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited

van V. Kuzmin1*, Brooke Bozick2, Sarah A. Guagliardo2, Rebekah Kunkel2, Joshua R. Shak2, Suxiang Tong1 and Charles E. Rupprecht1

1Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution Program, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA

Abstract

The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels.

Keywords: bats; Chiroptera; emerging infectious disease; rabies; lyssavirus; coronavirus; filovirus; henipavirus; prevention; control 

Received: 5 April 2011; Revised: 31 May 2011; Accepted: 31 May 2011; Published: 20 June 2011

Citation: Emergency Health Threats Journal 20114: 7159 - DOI: 10.3402/ehtj.v4i0.7159


Fig. Bat-associated and presumable bat-associated EIDs. Abbreviations: RABV,=rabies virus; EBLV-1,2 = European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2; WCBV = West Caucasian bat virus; ARAV = Aravan virus; KHUV = Khujand virus; IRKV = Irkut virus; LBV = Lagos bat virus; SHIBV = Shimoni bat virus; DUVV = Duvenhage virus; MARV = Marburg virus; EBOV = Ebola virus; Filovirus = unclassified filovirus detected in bats in Europe; HeV = Hendra virus; NiV = Nipah virus; Henipavirus = unclassified henipavirus; SARS-CoV = SARS coronavirus. 

文獻連結: http://www.eht-journal.net/index.php/ehtj/article/view/7159/8775 

Human antibody fends off Hendra virus

Thursday, 20 October 2011


http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2011/10/20/3344094.htm


AFP

A grey headed flying fox or fruit bat looking directly at camera from its spot in a tree

The Hendra virus is thought to be spread to horses via half-chewed fruit, or water and food contaminated by bats' droppings (iStockphoto: Craig Dingle)

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A human antibody has been shown to protect lab monkeys from a deadly bat-borne virus that has killed several people and dozens of horses since it was discovered in Australia in 1994, say US scientists.

The latest outbreak of Hendra virus has killed 20 horses in New South Wales and Queensland since June, but no humans. However four of the seven people ever to have contracted the disease have died.

The research, described in the journal Science Translational Medicine , was done at a highly protected lab in Montana, where 14 African green monkeys were injected with Hendra virus.

Twelve of the monkeys were then treated with a human antibody called m102.4, and they all survived while the untreated pair died.

Earlier experiments on smaller animals have also shown efficacy from the antibody against Hendra virus.

After the US study on monkeys concluded in 2010, the antibody was injected in a woman and her 12-year-old daughter in Australia last year after the girl's horse died last year from a Hendra infection.

While the two survived with no side effects from the treatment, scientists say more research needs to be done before the antibody can be used as a widespread remedy.

"This is a very promising therapy, especially when you consider that it was still strong three days later," says lead author Thomas Geisbert of the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston.

"What's also interesting is that this antibody has strong activity against Nipah virus as well, which is extremely similar to Hendra."

Bats, horses and humans

The Hendra virus, which kills about 60 per cent of those it infects, is thought to be spread to horses via half-chewed fruit, or water and food contaminated by bats' droppings.

Horses can then spread it to humans, though no person-to-person transmission cases have been documented.

However, Nipah virus, which emerged in 1998 in Malaysia and has been detected in Bangladesh and India, appears to infect humans more easily than Hendra and can be transmitted from person to person.

Nipah virus has infected 475 humans and killed 251 of them, according to the World Health Organization's latest data in 2008.

There is no licensed treatment or vaccine for either the Hendra or Nipah viruses.

The fruit bats that carry the disease are found mainly in Australia but have also been tracked to parts of Africa, India, Pakistan, and the Philippines.

The research was done in collaboration with Rocky Mountain Laboratories, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the National Institutes of Health, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, the National Cancer Institute, and the Boston University School of Medicine.

Tags: vaccines-and-immunitymammalshendra-virus-infection

http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2011/10/20/3344094.htm


施打人類抗體 亨德拉病毒有解

法新社法新社 – 2011年10月20日 下午11:20

      (法新社華盛頓19日電) 美國科學家今天表示,研究顯示,1種人類抗體能使實驗室裡的猴子免於感染源自蝙蝠的致命性病毒亨德拉。
        亨德拉病毒自1994年於澳洲現蹤後,已導致數人與數十匹馬死亡。
        
        最近再度爆發的亨德拉病毒自6月以來,已造成澳洲新南威爾斯(New South Wales)與昆士蘭(Queensland)有20匹馬死亡,不過無人喪命。
        然而曾感染亨德拉病毒的7個人中,已有4人身亡。
       根據「科學轉譯醫學」期刊(ScienceTranslational Medicine),這項研究在蒙大拿(Montana)高度防備的實驗室中進行,研究人員將亨德拉病毒
       注射到14隻非洲綠猴身上。其中12隻綠猴接著接受人類抗體m102.4治療,並全數存活,而未接受m102.4治療的剩下2隻綠猴,則難逃一死。

       先前也有實驗發現,m102.4能幫助小動物對抗亨德拉病毒。

這項針對猴子進行的美國研究於2010年做出結論後,1名接觸到亨德拉病毒的澳洲婦女與其12歲女兒,為尋求緊急防護,接受了m102.4注射。

這對母女接受m102.4治療後,都保住一命,且未出現副作用。科學家表示,在m102.4抗體成為廣泛療法前,還需進行更多研究。(譯者:中央社蔡佳伶)


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